WARRENSBURG — The Warrensburg Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution met Friday, Jan. 10, at the Rise Café with 24 members and guests present.
Chapter member Rebecca Limback, assisted by her husband Duane, presented the program on “The First Peoples of Missouri.”
She traced the history of Missouri from the time when it was covered by a shallow sea teaming with crinoids whose remains became our state fossil up through historic times.
Rebecca Limback stated habitation by humans began about 14,000 years B.C. and progressed through four geologic time periods: Paleo, Archaic, Woodland and Mississippian.
Over thousands of years the first peoples of Missouri adapted to changing climates and food sources.
Lifestyles became more organized and ceremonial, culminating in the great cities of the Mississippian period.
Rebecca Limback discussed each time period, giving specifics about the cultures of each and the life styles, food sources and types of tools/weapons used.
The Limbacks stated some sites people might want to visit where people lived at different time periods include: Cahokia Mounds State Historical Site (Mississippian Period), Collinsville, Ilinois, part of this large mounded city, covering more than six-square miles, was on the Missouri side of the river at St. Louis, those mounds were destroyed and built on; Graham Cave State Park (Archaic Period), Montgomery City; Van Meter State Park (historic period) Missouria site, Miami (near Marshall); Trail of Tears State Park, Jackson; and Thousand Hills State Park, Kirksville, shelter with petroglyphs.
The Limbacks said there are many other archaeological sites and places where the First Peoples of Missouri left evidence of their habitation.
In the historic period, two cultures reigned over Missouri, the Osage and the Missouria.
The Osage once ruled a wide area that included Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Kansas.
People from this area are familiar with the Osage River and Osceola, named for Chief Osceola.
The other group that inhabited Missouri during historic times was the Missouria.
The state name was derived from this group’s name.
The first identifiable settlement of the Missouria people is preserved in the village remains at Van Meter State Park near Marshall.
Enemy raids and European diseases took the Missouria population from about 10,000 down to 1,000.
The Limbacks stated arriving Europeans brought many diseases that decimated the native population.
Estimates are that the DeSoto expedition in the mid 1500s introduced epidemics that wiped out 75 percent of the native population.
Slaughter of the buffalo herds also was devastating to Native Americans.
The last full-blooded Missouria died in 1985.
The Osage had their lands taken away, and they were removed to Oklahoma.
The Limbacks displayed several cases of artifacts found primarily in Johnson, Lafayette, Pettis, and Saline counties over many years of collecting.